Loading the player...

Published on 14 February 2020 by **Arvin Ash**

Views: 462,599

Duration: 18:18

Views: 462,599

Duration: 18:18

Get MagellanTV here: https://try.magellantv.com/arvinash and get an exclusive offer for our viewers: an extended, month-long trial, FREE. MagellanTV has the largest and best collection of Science content anywhere, including Space, Physics, Technology, Nature, Mind and Body, and a growing collection of 4K. This new streaming service has 3000 great documentaries. Check out our personal recommendation and MagellanTV’s exclusive playlists: https://www.magellantv.com/genres/science-and-tech This video is on Quantum entanglement, Bell’s inequality, EPR paradox, nonlocality, determinism vs nondeterminism and probability. Bohr and Einstein argued passionately about their views on the essence of reality. And for 30 years, both views were considered equally valid. Then in 1964, Irish physicist John Bell devised a way to prove whether Einstein’s view of a classical, deterministic view of reality was correct, and he put this in a simple elegant equation – called the Bell Inequality. The weirdness of quantum mechanics can be demonstrated with a dice. If the dice was a quantum system, it would be in superposition. It would be a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 all at the same time. It’s value can only be known once it is measured. Einstein, was bothered by this interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein along with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen came up with what they thought disproved the Copenhagen interpretation. The crux of their argument rested on the idea of a phenomenon in quantum mechanics called entanglement. EPR argued that since nothing can travel faster than light according to special relativity, this should invalidate the Copenhagen interpretation. This was the EPR paradox. in 1964, John bell proposed an equation to determine who was right. In a universe where local hidden variables are true, when the two particles are emitted, they know what their state is going to be in all three directions, Z, X, and Q from birth. And there are only 8 possibilities of spins that each particle could have. what is the probability that Alice measures in the z direction, gets a positive spin, and Bob measures in the X direction and gets a positive spin? Well, if the above case is for Alice, there are 4 events where Z is positive. In order for Bob to get X positive, Alice would have to have measured X as negative. So these would be in event 3 and event 4. To get the probability we have to divide by the total number of events, 8. Let’s do this for two more scenarios. What is the probability that Alice measures positive in the Z direction, and Bob measures positive in the Q direction? In this scenario, it would be event 2 and event 4. Again we divide by 8 to get the probability. And the third case is: What is the probability that Alice measures positive in the Q direction, and Bob measures positive in the X direction? This would be event 3 and event 7, divided by 8 for probability. P: Z+, X+ = E3 + E4/8 P: Z+, Q+ = E2 + E4/8P: Q+, X+ = E3 + E7/8 So these are the three probabilities given the hidden variables theory. Now here is big insight that John Bell had: If I take the total number of Events, and multiply that by the probability that Alice measures Z positive and Bob measures X positive, this has to be less than or equal to the total number of events times the probability that Alice measures Z positive, and bob measures Q positive, plus the probability that Alice measures Q positive, and bob measures X positive. P:Z+,X+ less than or equal to P:Z+,Q+ + P:Q+,X+ I can prove this is true by doing simple math:E3 + E4 is less than or equal to E3 + E4 + E2 + E7 This makes total sense, because E3 and E4 are on both sides of the equation. And E2 and E7 have to be positive. So this inequality absolutely HAS to be true for any hidden variables theory to be true. But what happens in a universe where the laws of quantum mechanics are correct, and not hidden variables theory? And that probability of Bob measuring Q to be positive, after Alice has measured Z to be positive, is given by the following equation: P: Z+,Q+ = sin^2 of 45 degrees/2 This is the critical difference between quantum mechanics and hidden variables theory. The probability is not linear but looks like sine wave. When you plot this out, this is what the probabilities look like: So you can see from the graph that at 0, and multiples of 90 degrees, the two systems are in agreement. But in between, like at 45 degrees, the probability is 25% for hidden variables, and about 14.6% for quantum mechanics. #bellsinequality#eprparadox#bellstheorem But the proof is in the pudding, because in test after test, the sine function correlation has been confirmed. The particle does not behave linearly, and so the hidden variables theory cannot be correct. So most theorist do not think special relativity is violated, because we can’t communicate using this seemingly faster than light phenomenon.

Related Videos

Download Format Videos :

© Copyright 2023 **• Codedfilm •** All Rights Reserved